Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Global Water Crisis and National Security


Africa Rising

Posted: July 15, 2012 in Uncategorized

Discussions about Africa’s evolution tend to measure the continent’s ‘gradual’ assimilation into the global mainstream. This may have been understandable in the mid-1980s when by every indicator African economies were seen as hopelessly distorted and needed to be salvaged with what became known as ‘structural adjustment’. But African countries today appear more aligned with the Washington Consensus and Globalization’s ‘best practices’ than the West. On many of the macroeconomic indicators used to judge conformity with the mainstream – debt to GDP ratio, current account balance, fiscal balance, inflation – Africa is situated closer to the mainstream, while key OECD countries drift away. Data tracking other kinds of flows – in cultural, innovation, and labour flows – point to a continent becoming a key player in the Global South – not just assimilating into the global mainstream, but helping to shape it.

A Patchwork Model Won’t Work: A Call for a Holistic Education Approach for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zimbabwe

Posted: 12 Jul 2012 09:11 AM PDT

Zimbabwe is one of the countries hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic resulting in an increased number of orphans. About 1.6 million children are orphaned due to AIDS and other causes. These children are subject to a myriad of risks, are more susceptible to poverty, lack health care and formal schooling, and are more prone to psychological distress, abuse and neglect. Therefore, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are in urgent need of specialized social services to enhance their protection and development.

The Basic Education Assistance Programme (BEAM) is the largest government funded program providing school fees for OVC in Zimbabwe. However research shows that not all children access the government assistance programs. Other non-governmental organizations are also working to address the education barriers that affect educational attainment for OVC in Zimbabwe. While these organizations provide vital support for OVC, their programs are subject to funding availability and donor priorities. This creates a patchwork of support that is not consistent and fails to address the complex and interrelated needs of OVC.

One particular model sticks out in Zimbabwe for its provision of holistic, long-term education support spanning primary school through the tertiary level. Capernaum Trust offers a distinct education service delivery model for OVC in Zimbabwe. Established in 1996 by Strive and Tsitsi Masiyiwa, founders of Zimbabwe’s leading mobile telecommunications company, the organization seeks to transform OVC into what they call ‘History Makers ’ by redefining their destiny through an all-encompassing model. This model uses a comprehensive approach, utilizing programs that address the physical, social, academic, spiritual and psychological well-being of children.

They have targeted interventions that include:

* Scholarships covering school fees, levies and other related costs needed from primary to post- secondary education. The Trust provides scholarships to over 75,923 girls and boy in Zimbabwe, Burundi and Lesotho.
* Life skills, career guidance and internship programs for students to equip them with social and employment skills.
* Psycho-social programs, addressing challenges such as stigma, discrimination, low self-esteem and isolation associated with orphanhood in the era of HIV/AIDS.
* Health care and nutrition.
* eLearning opportunities, resource centers and libraries.
* Solar lanterns to help rural and urban students in areas without electricity extend the period of study time.

Due to the multiple and complex challenges that OVC face in their education, a patchwork of short-term programs will not create transformational and generational change in the lives of young people. There is need for more organizations to use models such as that of Capernaum Trust, and to scale up these intervention models to move beyond the payment of school fees and addressing the developmental needs of OVC holistically.

Editor’s note: Berejena recently completed participation in the Brookings Global Scholars Program at the Center for Universal Education. Her research has focused on education service delivery approaches for orphans and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe, especially adolescent girls. This blog reflects some of her research findings.


Pamhidzayi Berejena Mhongera
Justin W. van Fleet

The purpose of this study is to focus attention on the types of individuals and groups that are prone to terrorism (see Glossary) in an effort to help improve U.S. counterterrorist methods and policies.

The emergence of amorphous and largely unknown terrorist individuals and groups operating independently (freelancers) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure of urgency to increasing our understanding of the psychological and sociological dynamics of terrorist groups and individuals. The approach used in this study is twofold. First, the study examines the relevant literature and assesses the current knowledge of the subject. Second, the study seeks to develop psychological and sociological profiles of foreign terrorist individuals and selected groups to use as case studies in assessing trends, motivations, likely behavior, and actions that might deter such behavior, as well as reveal vulnerabilities that would aid in combating terrorist groups and individuals.


Failure to achieve a war’s political objective (s) – which may not mean military defeat. The United States was never militarily defeated in Vietnam, but nonetheless lost the war because it failed to achieve its declared political objective: the preservation of an independent, non-Communist South Vietnam. In the Algerian War (1954-1962), the French won militarily but lost politically.

Dr. Jeffrey Record

U.S. War College, January 2007

Rethinking Insurgency

Posted: July 4, 2012 in Uncategorized

The September 11, 2001, attacks and Operations ENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM revived the idea that insurgency is a significant threat to the United States. In response, the American military and defense communities began to rethink insurgency. Much of this valuable work, though, viewed contemporary insurgency as more closely related to Cold War era insurgencies than to the complex conflicts which characterized the post-Cold War period. This suggests that the most basic way that the military and defense communities think about insurgency must be rethought.

Steven Metz

Irregular Warfare

Posted: August 15, 2010 in Uncategorized





Asymmetric warfare

Small war



Freedom Fighter